## A Dictionary of Units

**Citation preview**

A Dictionary of Units by Frank Tapson

This provides a summary of most of the units of measurement to be found in use around the world today (and a few of historical interest), together with the appropriate conversion factors needed to change them into a 'standard' unit of the SI. The units may be found either by looking under the in which they are used, (length energy etc.) or by picking one unit from an alphabetically ordered There is an outline of the a list of its 7 basic some of its together with a list of all the and some of the rules and conventions for On the subject of measures generally, there is a short Then there are descriptions of the and the followed by statements on the implementation of and then the

category list of units. S I system, definitions, derived units, S I prefixes, its usage. historical note. Metric system, U K (Imperial) system, 'metrication' in the U K, U S system of measures.

At the bottom of this document is a list of other sources, and also some links to other Web sites. Finally there are some notes on this material . A more extensive (3-part) version of this dictionary will be found at www.ex.ac.uk/trol/dictunit/

The Systeme International [S I] Le Systeme international d'Unites officially came into being in October 1960 and has been officially recognised and adopted by nearly all countries, though the amount of actual usage varies considerably. It is based upon 7 principal units, 1 in each of 7 different categories Category

Name

Length Mass Time Electric current Temperature Amount of substance Luminous intensity

metre kilogram second ampere kelvin mole candela

Abbrev. m kg s A K mol cd

Definitions of these basic units are given. Each of these units may take a prefix. From these basic units many other units are derived and named. Return to the top of this document

Definitions of the Seven Basic S I Units metre [m] The metre is the basic unit of length. It is the distance light travels, in a vacuum, in 1/299792458th of a second. kilogram [kg] The kilogram is the basic unit of mass. It is the mass of an international prototype in the form of a platinum-iridium cylinder kept at Sevres in France. It is now the only basic unit still defined in terms of a material object, and also the only one with a prefix[kilo] already in place. second [s] The second is the basic unit of time. It is the length of time taken for 9192631770 periods of vibration of the caesium-133 atom to occur. ampere [A] The ampere is the basic unit of electric current. It is that current which produces a specified force between two parallel wires which are 1 metre apart in a vacuum.It is named after the French physicist Andre Ampere (1775-1836). kelvin [K] The kelvin is the basic unit of temperature. It is 1/273.16th of the thermodynamic temperature of the triple point of water. It is named after the Scottish mathematician and physicist William Thomson 1st Lord Kelvin (1824-1907). mole [mol] The mole is the basic unit of substance. It is the amount of substance that contains as many elementary units as there are atoms in 0.012 kg of carbon-12. candela [cd] The candela is the basic unit of luminous intensity. It is the intensity of a source of light of a specified frequency, which gives a specified amount of power in a given direction. Return to the top of this document

Derived Units of the S I From the 7 basic units of the SI other units are derived for a variety of purposes. Only a few of are explained here as examples, there are many more. farad [F] The farad is the SI unit of the capacitance of an electrical system, that is, its capacity to store electricity. It is a rather large unit as defined and is more often used as a microfarad. It is named after the English chemist and physicist Michael Faraday (1791-1867). hertz [Hz] The hertz is the SI unit of the frequency of a periodic phenomenon. One hertz indicates that 1 cycle of the phenomenon occurs every second. For most work much higher frequencies are needed such as the kilohertz [kHz] and megahertz [MHz]. It is named after the German physicist Heinrich Rudolph Hertz (1857-94). joule [J] The joule is the SI unit of work or energy. One joule is the amount of work done when an applied force of 1 newton moves through a distance of 1 metre in the direction of

the force.It is named after the English physicist James Prescott Joule (1818-89). newton 1272 The newton is the SI unit of force. One newton is the force required to give a mass of 1 kilogram an acceleration of 1 metre per second per second. It is named after the English mathematician and physicist Sir Isaac Newton (1642-1727). ohm [Ω ] The ohm is the SI unit of resistance of an electrical conductor. Its symbol, is the capital Greek letter 'omega'. It is named after the German physicist Georg Simon Ohm (1789-1854). pascal [Pa] The pascal is the SI unit of pressure. One pascal is the pressure generated by a force of 1 newton acting on an area of 1 square metre. It is a rather small unit as defined and is more often used as a kilopascal [kPa]. It is named after the French mathematician, physicist and philosopher Blaise Pascal (1623-62). volt [V] The volt is the SI unit of electric potential. One volt is the difference of potential between two points of an electical conductor when a current of 1 ampere flowing between those points dissipates a power of 1 watt. It is named after the Italian physicist Count Alessandro Giuseppe Anastasio Volta (1745-1827). watt [W] The watt is used to measure power or the rate of doing work. One watt is a power of 1 joule per second. It is named after the Scottish engineer James Watt (1736-1819). Note that prefixes may be used in conjunction with any of the above units. Return to the top of this document

The Prefixes of the S I The S I allows the sizes of units to be made bigger or smaller by the use of appropriate prefixes. For example, the electrical unit of a watt is not a big unit even in terms of ordinary household use, so it is generally used in terms of 1000 watts at a time. The prefix for 1000 is kilo so we use kilowatts[kW] as our unit of measurement. For makers of electricity, or bigger users such as industry, it is common to use megawatts[MW] or even gigawatts[GW]. The full range of prefixes with their [symbols or abbreviations] and their multiplying factors which are also given in other forms is yotta [Y] 1 000 zetta [Z] 1 000 exa [E] 1 000 peta [P] 1 000 tera [T] 1 000 giga [G] 1 000 billion) mega [M] 1 000 kilo [k] 1 000 hecto [h] 100 deca [da]10 1 deci [d] 0.1 centi [c] 0.01 milli [m] 0.001 micro [µ] 0.000 nano [n] 0.000

000 000 000 000 000 000

000 000 000 000 000 000

000

001 000 001

000 000 000 000 000

000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000 000

= 10^24 = 10^21 = 10^18 = 10^15 = 10^12 (a thousand millions = a (a million) (a thousand) (a hundred) (ten) (a tenth) (a hundredth) (a thousandth) (a millionth) (a thousand millionth)

pico femto atto zepto yocto

[p] [f] [a] [z] [y]

0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000 0.000

000 000 000 000 000

000 000 000 000 000

001 000 000 000 000

001 000 001 000 000 001 000 000 000 001

= 10^-12 = 10^-15 = 10^-18 = 10^-21 = 10^-24

[µ] the symbol used for micro is the Greek letter known as 'mu' Nearly all of the S I prefixes are multiples (kilo to yotta) or sub-multiples (milli to yocto) of 1000. However, these are inconvenient for many purposes and so hecto, deca, deci, and centi are also used. deca also appears as deka [da] or [dk] in the USA and Contintental Europe. So much for standards! Return to the top of this document

Conventions of Usage in the S I There are various rules laid down for the use of the SI and its units as well as some observations to be made that will help in its correct use. • •

•

• • •

•

Any unit may take only ONE prefix. For example 'millimillimetre' is incorrect and should be written as 'micrometre'. Most prefixes which make a unit bigger are written in capital letters (M G T etc.), but when they make a unit smaller then lower case (m n p etc.) is used. Exceptions to this are the kilo [k] to avoid any possible confusion with kelvin [K]; hecto [h]; and deca [da] or [dk] It will be noted that many units are eponymous, that is they are named after persons. This is always someone who was prominent in the early work done within the field in which the unit is used. Such a unit is written all in lower case (newton, volt, pascal etc.) when named in full, but starting with a capital letter (N V Pa etc.) when abbreviated. An exception to this rule is the litre which, if written as a lower case 'l' could be mistaken for a '1' (one) and so a capital 'L' is allowed as an alternative. It is intended that a single letter will be decided upon some time in the future when it becomes clear which letter is being favoured most in use. Units written in abbreviated form are NEVER pluralised. So 'm' could always be either 'metre' or 'metres'. 'ms' would represent 'millisecond'. An abbreviation (such as J N g Pa etc.) is NEVER followed by a full-stop unless it is the end of a sentence. To make numbers easier to read they may be divided into groups of 3 separated by spaces (or half-spaces) but NOT commas. The SI preferred way of showing a decimal fraction is to use a comma (123,456) to separate the whole number from its fractional part. The practice of using a point, as is common in English-speaking countries, is acceptable providing only that the point is placed ON the line of the bottom edge of the numbers (123.456) and NOT in the middle.

Return to the top of this document

A Brief History of Measurement

One of the earliest types of measurement concerned that of length. These measurements were usually based on parts of the body. A well documented example (the first) is the Egyptian cubit which was derived from the length of the arm from the elbow to the outstretched finger tips. By 2500 BC this had been standardised in a royal master cubit made of black marble (about 52 cm). This cubit was divided into 28 digits (roughly a finger width) which could be further divided into fractional parts, the smallest of these being only just over a millimetre. In England units of measurement were not properly standardised until the 13th century, though variations (and abuses) continued until long after that. For example, there were three different gallons (ale, wine and corn) up until 1824 when the gallon was standardised. In the U S A the system of weights and measured first adopted was that of the English, though a few differences came in when decisions were made at the time of standardisation in 1836. For instance, the wine-gallon of 231 cubic inches was used instead of the English one (as defined in 1824) of about 277 cubic inches. The U S A also took as their standard of dry measure the old Winchester bushel of 2150.42 cubic inches, which gave a dry gallon of nearly 269 cubic inches. Even as late as the middle of the 20th century there were some differences in UK and US measures which were nominally the same. The UK inch measured 2.53998 cm while the US inch was 2.540005 cm. Both were standardised at 2.54 cm in July 1959, though the U S continued to use 'their' value for several years in land surveying work - this too is slowly being metricated. In France the metric system officially started in June 1799 with the declared intent of being 'For all people, for all time'. The unit of length was the metre which was defined as being one ten-millionth part of a quarter of the earth's circumference. The production of this standard required a very careful survey to be done which took several years. However, as more accurate instruments became available so the 'exactness' of the standard was called into question. Later efforts were directed at finding some absolute standard based on an observable physical phenomenon. Over two centuries this developed into the S I. So maybe their original slogan was more correct than anyone could have foreseen then. Return to the top of this document

Metric System of Measurements Length 10 millimetres = 1 = 1 sq. cm 10 centimetres = 1 sq. metre 10 decimetres = 1 are 10 metres = 1 hectare 10 decametres = 1 metres = 1 hectare 10 hectometres = 1 sq. kilometre 1000 metres = 1

centimetre decimeter

Area 100 sq. mm 10 000 sq. cm

= 1

metre

100 sq. metres = 1

decametre

100 ares

hectometre

= 1

10 000 sq.

kilometre

100 hectares

= 1

kilometre

1 000 000 sq. metres = 1

sq. kilometre

1 1 1 1

1000 centilitre 1000 decilitre 1000 litre 1 million cu. metre

Volume cu. mm = 1 cu. cm

Capacity 10 millilitres =

cu. cm = 1 cu. decimetre

10 centilitree =

cu. dm = 1 cu. metre

10 decilitres

cu. cm = 1 cu. metre

=

1000 litres

=

Mass 1000 grams = 1 kilogram 1000 kilograms = 1 tonne

The distinction between 'Volume' and 'Capacity' is artificial and kept here only for historic reasons. A millitre is a cubic centimetre and a cubic decimetre is a litre. But see under 'Volume' for problems with the litre. Return to the top of this document

The U K (Imperial) System of Measurements 12 3 22 10 8 5280 1760

Length inches = feet = yards = chains = furlongs = feet = yards =

1 1 1 1 1 1 1

foot yard chain furlong mile mile mile

Volume 1728 cu. inches = 1 cubic foot 27 cu. feet = 1 cubic yard pints) Mass 437.5 grains 16 ounces 14 pounds grains) 8 stones grains) 20 cwt

Area 144 sq. inches = 1 square foot 9 sq. feet = 1 square yard 4840 sq. yards = 1 acre 640 acres = 1 square mile

20 4 2 4

Capacity fluid ounces = gills = pints = quarts =

1 1 1 1

pint pint quart gallon (8

(Avoirdupois) = 1 ounce = 1 pound (7000 grains) = 1 stone

Troy Weights 24 grains = 1 pennyweight 20 pennyweights = 1 ounce (480

= 1 hundredweight [cwt]

12 ounces

= 1 pound (5760

= 1 ton (2240 pounds)

Apothecaries' 20 minims = 1 3 fl.scruples = 1 8 fl.drachms = 1 grains) 20 fl.ounces = 1 grains)

Measures fl.scruple fl.drachm fl.ounce

Apothecaries' 20 grains = 1 3 scruples = 1 8 drachms = 1

pint

12 ounces

Weights scruple drachm ounce (480

= 1 pound (5760

The old Imperial (now UK) system was originally defined by three standard measures the yard, the pound and the gallon which were held in London. They are now defined by

reference to the S I measures of the metre, the kilogram and the litre. These equivalent measures are exact. 1 yard = 0.9144 metres - same in US 1 pound = 0.453 592 37 kilograms - same in US 1 gallon = 4.546 09 litres - different in US Note particularly that the UK gallon is a different size to the US gallon so that NO liquid measures of the same name are the same size in the UK and US systems. Also that the ton(UK) is 2240 pounds while a ton(US) is 2000 pounds. These are also referred to as a long ton and short ton respectively. Return to the top of this document

Metrication in the U K There have been three major Weights and Measures Acts in recent times (1963, 1976 and 1985) all gradually abolishing various units, as well re-defining the standards. All the Apothecaries' measures are now gone, and of the Troy measures, only the ounce remains. The legislation decreed that From the 1st October 1995, for economic, public health, public safety and administrative purposes, only metric units were to be allowed EXCEPT that • • • •

pounds and ounces for weighing of goods sold from bulk pints and fluid ounces for beer, cider, waters, lemonades and fruit juices in RETURNABLE containers therms for gas supply fathoms for marine navigation

could be used until 31st December 1999. The following could continue to be used WITHOUT time limit • • • •

miles, yards, feet and inches for road traffic signs and related measurements of speed and distance pints for dispensing draught beer and cider, and for milk in RETURNABLE containers acres for land registration purposes troy ounces for transactions in precious metals.

Sports were exempt from all of this, but most of them have (voluntarily) changed their relevant regulations into statements of equivalent metric measures. That was how the legislation was framed. In common usage the 'old' units are still very apparent.

Some other dates of note 1950 The Hodgson Report was published which, after arguing all the points for and against, favoured a change to metric. 1963 Weights and Measures Act defined the basic measures of the 'yard' and the 'pound' in terms of the 'metre' and the

'kilogram'. Many of the old imperial measures were abolished (drachm, scruple, minim, chaldron, quarter, rod, pole, perch, and a few more) 1971 Currency was Decimalised 1985 Weights and Measures Act abolished several more imperial measures for purposes of trade, and defined the 'gallon' in terms of the 'litre'. Thus, all the measures had been metricated even if the public hadn't! Return to the top of this document

The U S System of Measurements Most of the US system of measurements is the same as that for the UK. The biggest differences to be noted are in Capacity which has both liquid and dry measures as well as being based on a different standard - the US liquid gallon is smaller than the UK gallon. There is also a measurement known at the US survey foot. It is gradually being phased out as the maps and land plans are re-drawn under metrication. (The changeover is being made by putting 39.37 US survey feet = 12 metres) 12 3 220 8 5280 1760

Length inches = feet = yards = furlongs = feet = yards =

1 1 1 1 1 1

foot yard furlong mile mile mile

144 9 4840 640 1 36

Area sq. inches sq. feet sq. yards acres sq.mile sections

= = = = = =

1 1 1 1 1 1

square foot square yard acre square mile section township

Volume 1728 cu. inches = 1 cubic foot 27 cu. feet = 1 cubic yard Capacity (Dry) 2 pints = 1 quart 8 quarts = 1 peck 4 pecks = 1 bushel gallon (8 pints) Mass 437.5 grains = 16 ounces = 14 pounds = grains) 100 pounds = grains) 20 cwt =

Capacity (Liquid) 16 fluid ounces = 1 pint 4 gills = 1 pint 2 pints = 1 quart 4 quarts = 1

1 ounce 1 pound (7000 grains) 1 stone

Troy Weights 24 grains = 1 pennyweight 20 pennyweights = 1 ounce (480

1 hundredweight [cwt]

12 ounces

= 1 pound (5760

1 ton (2000 pounds)

Apothecaries' Measures 60 minims = 1 fl.dram 8 fl.drams = 1 fl.ounce 16 fl.ounces = 1 pint grains)

Apothecaries' 20 grains = 1 3 scruples = 1 8 drams = 1 12 ounces

Weights scruple dram ounce (480

= 1 pound (5760

grains)

As with the UK system these measures were originally defined by physical standard measures - the yard, the pound, the gallon and the bushel.They are now all defined by reference to the S I measures of the metre, the kilogram and the litre. These equivalent measures are exact. 1 yard = 0.9144 metres - same as UK 1 pound = 0.453 592 37 kilograms - same as UK 1 gallon (liquid) = 3.785 411 784 litres 1 bushel = 35.239 070 166 88 litres Note particularly that the US gallon is a different size to the UK gallon so that NO liquid measures of the same name are the same size in the US and UK systems. Also that the ton(US) is 2000 pounds while a ton(UK) is 2240 pounds. These are also referred to as a short ton and long ton respectively. Note than in matters concerned with land measurements, for the most accurate work, it is necessary to establish whether the US survey measures are being used or not. Return to the top of this document

Categories of Units length area volume or capacity mass temperature

density, area density, line density, volume energy force fuel consumption mass per unit length mass per unit area mass per unit volume

power pressure speed spread rate (by mass) spread rate (by volume) stress torque

Return to the top of this document

List of Units Units are listed in alphabetical order. Scanning can be speeded up by selecting the initial letter of the unit from these individual letters or groups

A - B - C - D - E - F - G - H - IJ - K - L - M N - O - PQ - R - S - T - UVW - XYZ A to K A acres angstroms

E ells (UK) ems (pica)

IJ inches inches of mercury or water

ares astronomical units atmospheres

ergs (energy) ergs (torque)

F

B barleycorns barrels (oil) bars British thermal units Btu/hour etc. bushels

C calories calories per hour etc. carats, metric Celsius centigrade centigrade heat units centilitres centimetres centimetres of mercury or water centimetres per minute etc. chains (surveyors') circular inches cubic (+ any units) cubic measures per area cubits

D

Fahrenheit fathoms feet feet of water feet per hour etc. fluid ounces foot pounds-force foot pounds-force per minute etc. foot poundals furlongs

G gallons gallons per area gigajoules gigawatts grains grains per gallon grams gram-force centimetres grams per area grams per cm grams per (any volume)

H hands hectares hides horsepower horsepower hours hundredweights

decilitres denier drex dynes

inches of rain (by mass) inches of rain (by volume) inches per minute etc. joules joules per hour etc.

K Kelvin kilocalories kilocalories per hour etc. kilograms-force kilogram-force metres (energy) kilogram-force metres (torque) kilogram-force metres per hour etc. kilogram-force per area kilograms kilograms per area kilograms per metre kilograms per volume kilojoules kilojoules per hour etc. kilometres kilometres per hour etc. kilometres per litre kilonewton per square metre kilonewtons kilopascals kilowatts kilowatt hours kips (force) kips per square inch knots

L to Z L leagues light years links (surveyors') litres litres per area

M Mach number megajoules meganewtons meganewtons per square metre

O ounces ounces per inch ounces per area ounces per volume

PQ parsecs pascals perch (=rods or poles) picas pints

T tex therms tonnes ton-force metres tonnes-force tonnes-force per area tonnes per hectare tonnes per km tonnes per volume ton-force feet

megawatts metres metres of water metres per second etc. microns (=micrometres) miles miles per gallon miles per hour etc. millibars milligrams per cm milligrams per (any volume) millilitres millimetres of mercury or water millimetres of rain (by mass) millimetres of rain (by volume)

N newton metres (energy) newton metres (torque) newtons (per area) newtons (force) newtons (weight)

points (printers') poundals poundals per square foot pounds pounds per area pounds per foot pounds per volume pounds-force pound-force inches pounds-force per area quarts

R Rankine Reaumur roods

tons tons-force tons-force per area tons per acre tons per mile tons per volume townships troy ounce

UVW watt second watt hours watts

XYZ S

yards yards per hour etc.

slugs (or g-pounds) stones square (+ any units) squares (of timber) sthenes

Return to the top of this document

Length The S I unit of length is the metre. To change any of these other units of length into their equivalent values in metres use the operation and conversion factor given. Those marked with # are exact. Other values are given to an appropriate degree of accuracy. Where some uncertainty is indicated it means that a good idea of the size of the unit can be given but that a better value would depend upon knowing the period and/or culture in which the unit was being used. Note than in matters concerned with land measurements, for the most accurate work, it is necessary to establish whether the US survey measures are being used or not. angstroms astronomical units barleycorns centimetres chains (surveyors') cubits ells (UK) ems (pica) fathoms

divide by 10 000 000 000 # x 149 598 550 000 x 0.008 467 x 0.01 # x 20.1168 # x (0.45 to 0.5) x 0.875 (but many variations) x 0.004 233 3 x 1.8288 #

feet (UK and US) feet (US survey) furlongs hands inches

x x x x x

0.3048 # 0.304 800 609 6 201.168 # 0.1016 # 0.0254 #

kilometres leagues light years links (surveyors')

x x x x

metres [m]

1

microns (=micrometres) miles (UK and US) miles (nautical) parsecs perch (=rods or poles) picas (computer) picas (printers') points (computer) points (printers') yards

x x x x x x x x x x

1000 # (4000 to 5000) 9 460 500 000 000 000 0.201 168 #

0.000 001 # 1609.344 # 1852 # 30 856 770 000 000 000 5.0292 # 0.004 233 333 0.004 217 518 0.000 352 777 8 0.000 351 459 8 0.9144 #

Return to the top of this document

Area The S I unit of area is the square metre. To change any of these other units of area into their equivalent values in square metres use the operation and conversion factor given. Those marked with # are exact. Other values are given to an appropriate degree of accuracy. Where some uncertainty is indicated it means that a good idea of the size of the unit can be given but that a better value would depend upon knowing the period and/or culture in which the unit was being used. Note than in matters concerned with land measurements, for the most accurate work, it is necessary to establish whether the US survey measures are being used or not. acres x ares x circular inches x hectares x hides x roods x square centimetres x square feet (UK and US) square feet (US survey) square inches x square kilometres x square metres

1

square miles square millimetres squares (of timber) square rods (or poles) square yards townships

x x x x x x

Return to the top of this document

Volume or Capacity

4046.856 422 4 # 100 # 0.000 506 707 479 10 000 # 485 000 (with wide variations) 1011.714 105 6 # 0.000 1 # x 0.092 903 04 # x 0.092 903 411 613 0.000 645 16 # 1 000 000 #

2 589 988.110 336 # 0.000 001 # 9.290 304 # 25.292 852 64 # 0.836 127 36 # 93 239 571.972

The S I unit of volume is the cubic metre. However, this seems to be much less used than the litre (1000 litres = 1 cubic metre).To change any of these other units of volume into their equivalent values in litres use the operation and conversion factor given. Those marked with # are exact. Other values are given to an appropriate degree of accuracy. The litre. There can be some ambiguity about the size of the litre. When the metric system was introduced in the 1790's the litre was intended to match up with the volume occupied by 1 kilogram of pure water at a specified pressure and temperature. As the ability to measure things got better (by 100 years later) they found that there was a mismatch between the kilogram and the litre. As a result of this they had to redefine the litre (in 1901) as being 1.000028 cubic decimetres. Very handy! This nonsense was stopped in 1964 when it was ruled that the word "litre" may be employed as a special name for the cubic decimetre, with the additional recommendation that for really accurate work, to avoid any possible confusion, the litre should not be used. Here the litre is taken as being a cubic decimetre. barrels (oil) bushels (UK) bushels (US) centilitres cubic centimetres cubic decimetres cubic decametres cubic feet cubic inches

x x x x x 1 x x x

158.987 294 928 # 36.368 72 # 35.239 070 166 88 # 0.01 # 0.001 #

cubic metres cubic millimetres cubic yards decilitres fluid ounces (UK) fluid ounces (US) gallons (UK) gallons, dry (US) gallons, liquid (US)

x x x x x x x x x

1000 # 0.000 001 # 764.554 857 984 # 0.1 # 0.028 413 062 5 # 0.029 573 529 562 5 # 4.546 09 # 4.404 883 770 86 # 3.785 411 784 #

litres [l or L]

1

litres (1901 - 1964) millilitres pints (UK) pints, dry (US) pints, liquid (US) quarts (UK) quarts, dry (US) quarts, liquid (US)

x x x x x x x x

1 000 000 # 28.316 846 592 # 0.016 387 064 #

1.000 0.001 0.568 0.550 0.473 1.136 1.101 0.946

028 # 261 610 176 522 220 352

25 # 471 357 5 # 473 # 5 # 942 715 # 946 #

Return to the top of this document

Mass (or Weight) The S I unit of mass is the kilogram. To change any of these other units of mass into their equivalent values in kilograms use the operation and conversion factor given. Those marked with # are exact. Other values are given to an appropriate degree of accuracy.

carats, metric grains grams hundredweights, long hundredweights, short

x x x x x

kilograms [kg]

1

ounces, avoirdupois ounces, troy pounds slugs (or g-pounds) stones tons (UK or long) tons (US or short) tonnes

x x x x x x x x

0.000 2 # 0.000 064 798 91 # 0.001 # 50.802 345 44 # 45.359 237 #

0.028 349 523 125 # 0.031 103 476 8 # 0.453 592 37 # 14.593 903 6.350 293 18 # 1016.046 908 8 # 907.184 74 # 1000 #

Return to the top of this document

Temperature There have been five main temperature scales, each one being named after the person who invented it. G D FAHRENHEIT (1686-1736) a German physicist, in about 1714 proposed the first practical scale. He called the freezing-point of water 32 degrees (so as to avoid negative temperatures) and the boiling-point 212 degrees. R A F de REAUMUR (1673-1757) A French entomologist, proposed a similar scale in 1730, but set the freezing-point at 0 degrees and the boiling-point at 80 degrees. This was used quite a bit but is now obsolete. Anders CELSIUS (1701-1744) a Swedish astronomer, proposed the 100-degree scale (from 0 to 100) in 1742. This was widely adopted as the centigrade scale. But since grades and centigrades were also measures of angle, in 1947 it officially became the Celsius scale. Also, the S I system of units gives preference to naming units after people where possible. William Thomson, 1st Lord KELVIN (1824-1907) a Scottish mathematician and physicist, worked with J P Joule - about 1862 - to produce an absolute scale of temperature based on laws of heat rather than the freezing/boiling-points of water. This work produced the idea of 'absolute zero', a temperature below which it was not possible to go. Its value is -273.15 degrees on the Celsius scale. William J M RANKINE (1820-1872) a Scottish engineer and scientist, promoted the Kelvin scale in its Fahrenheit form, when the equivalent value of absolute zero is -459.67 degrees Fahrenheit. Nowadays, while scientists use the KELVIN scale, the CELSIUS scale is the preferred scale in our everyday lives. However, the Fahrenheit scale is still widely used and there frequently is a need to be able to change from one to the other. To change temperature given in Fahrenheit (F) to Celsius (C) Start with (F); subtract 32; multiply by 5; divide by 9; the answer is (C) To change temperature given in Celsius (C) to Fahrenheit (F) Start with (C); multiply by 9; divide by 5; add on 32; answer is (F)

the

Return to the top of this document

Line density Line density is a measure of mass per unit length. The S I compatible unit of line density is kilograms/metre. A major use of line density is in the textile industry to indicate the coarseness of a yarn or fibre. For that purpose the SI unit is rather large so the preferred unit there is the tex. (1 tex = 1 gram/kilometre) To change any of these other units of line density into their equivalent values in kilograms/metre use the operation and conversion factor given. Those marked with # are exact. Other values are given to an appropriate degree of accuracy. denier drex grams/centimetre grams/kilometre (tex) grams/metre grams/millimetre kilograms/kilometre

divide divide divide divide divide 1 divide

by 9 000 000 # by 10 000 000 # by 10 # by 1 000 000 # by 1000 #

kilograms/metre

1

milligrams/centimetre milligrams/millimetre ounces/inch ounces/foot pounds/inch pounds/foot pounds/yard pounds/mile tex tons(UK)/mile tons(US)/mile tonnes/kilometre

divide by 10 000 # divide by 1000 # x 1.116 125 x 0.093 01 x 17.858 x 1.488 164 x 0.496 055 x 0.000 281 849 divide by 1 000 000 # x 0.631 342 x 0.563 698 1

by 1000 #

Return to the top of this document

Density Density is the shortened term generally used in place of the more accurate description volumetric density.It is a measure of mass per unit volume. The S I compatible unit of density is kilograms/cubic metre. However, this a rather large unit for most purposes (iron is over 7000, wood is about 600 and even cork is over 200). A much more useful size of unit is kilograms/litre (for which the previous values then become 7, 0.6 and 0.2 respectively). This unit also has the great advantage of being numerically unchanged for grams/cubic centimetre and tonnes/cubic metre (or megagrams/cubic metre). To change any of these other units of density into their equivalent values in kilograms/litre use the operation and conversion factor given. Those marked with # are exact. Other values are given to an appropriate degree of accuracy.

grains/gallon(UK) grains/gallon(US) grams/cubic centimetre grams/litre grams/millilitre kilograms/cubic metre megagrams/cubic metre milligrams/millilitre milligrams/litre

divide divide 1 divide 1 divide 1 divide divide

kilograms/litre

1

ounces/cubic inch ounces/gallon(UK) ounces/gallon(US) pounds/cubic inch pounds/cubic foot pounds/gallon(UK) pounds/gallon(US) tonnes/cubic metre tons(UK)/cubic yard tons(US)/cubic yard

x x x x x x x 1 x x

by by

70 157 58 418

by 1000 # by 1000 # by 1000 # by 1 000 000 #

1.729 994 044 0.006 236 023 0.007 489 152 27.679 905 0.016 018 463 0.099 776 373 0.119 826 427 1.328 939 184 1.186 552 843

Return to the top of this document

Energy or work There is a lot of room for confusion in some of the units used here. The calorie can take 5 different values and, while these do not vary by very much, for accurate work it is necessary to specify which calorie is being used. The 5 calories are known as the International Table calorie = cal(IT) thermochemical calorie = cal(th) mean calorie = cal(mean) 15 degree C calorie = cal(15C) 20 degree C calorie = cal(20C). Unless a clear statement is made saying otherwise, assume the IT calorie is being used. As a further complication, in working with food and expressing nutritional values, the unit of a Calorie (capital C) is often used to represent 1000 calories, and again it is necessary to specify which calorie is being used for that. The British thermal unit (Btu) can also take different values and they are named in a similar way to the calorie, that is Btu (IT), (th), etc. Also note that the therm is 100 000 Btu so its exact size depends on which Btu is being used. The S I unit of energy or work is the joule. To change any of these other units of energy or work into their equivalent values in joules use the operation and conversion factor given. Those marked with # are exact. Other values are given to an appropriate degree of accuracy. British thermal units(IT)x 1055.056 Btu (th) x 1054.350 Btu (mean) x 1055.87 calories - cal (IT) x 4.1868 # - cal (th) x 4.184 # - cal (mean) x 4.190 02 - cal (15C) x 4.185 80

- cal (20C) Calorie (food) centigrade heat units ergs foot pounds-force foot poundals gigajoules [GJ] horsepower hours

x 4.181 90 x 4186 (approx.) x 1900.4 divide by 10 000 000 # x 1.355 818 x 0.042 140 x 1000 000 000 # x 2 684 520 (approx.)

joules [J]

1

kilocalories (IT) kilocalories (th) kilogram-force metres kilojoules [kJ] kilowatt hours [kWh] megajoules [MJ] newton metres [Nm] therms watt seconds [Ws] watt hours [Wh]

x x x x x x x x 1 x

4186.8 # 4184 # 9.806 65 # 1000 # 3 600 000 # 1 000 000 # 1 # 105 500 000 (approx.) 3600 #

Return to the top of this document

Force The S I unit of force is the newton. To change any of these other units of force into their equivalent values in newtons use the operation and conversion factor given. Those marked with # are exact. Other values are given to an appropriate degree of accuracy. dynes kilograms force kilonewtons [kN] kips meganewtons [MN]

divide by 100 000 # x 9.806 65 # x 1000 # x 4448.222 x 1 000 000 #

newtons 1272

1

pounds force poundals sthenes (=kN) tonnes force tons(UK) force tons(US) force

x x x x x x

4.448 222 0.138 255 1000 9806.65 # 9964.016 8896.443

Return to the top of this document

Fuel Consumption Fuel consumption of any means of transport (car, aeroplane, ship etc.) that uses fuel is a measure giving the relationship between the distance travelled for an amount of fuel used. The most common example is the car where it is usually expressed (in English-speaking countries) in miles per gallon. It could also be expressed in gallons per mile. However, for a car the latter method gives a rather small figure: 35 miles per gallon is about 0.0286 gallons per mile. In that case it

would be better to give a figure for 100 miles, so it would be 2.86 gallons per 100 miles. That is the metric way of expressing fuel consumption - as litres per 100 kilometres. From regular enquiries it appears that in real life people are using all sorts of ways of expressing their fuel consumption, so this section (unlike all the others) tries to cover as many ways as possible. All the values are given to an accuracy of 4 significant figures. To change miles per miles per miles per miles per

gallon (UK) gallon (UK) litre gallon (UK)

into miles per gallon (US) multiply by 0.833 miles per litre multiply by 0.22 miles per gallon (UK) multiply by 4.546 kilometres per litre multiply by 0.354

miles miles miles miles

gallon (US) gallon (US) litre gallon (US)

miles per gallon (UK) multiply by 1.2 miles per litre multiply by 0.2642 miles per gallon (US) multiply by 3.785 kilometres per litre multiply by 0.4251

per per per per

X miles per gallon X X X X

gallons per 100 miles: divide 100 by X (both gallons must of the same type)

miles per gallon (UK) litres per 100 km: divide 282.5 by X miles per gallon (US) litres per 100 km: divide 235.2 by X km per litre litres per 100 km: divide 100 by X miles per litre litres per 100 km: divide 62.14 by X

Return to the top of this document

Power Since power is a measure of the rate at which work is done, the underlying units are those of work or energy, and that section should be looked at for explanations concerning the calorie and Btu. In this section the (IT) values have been used. In this section it is the horsepower which provides confusion. Just like the calorie, it can take 5 different values, and these are identified as necessary by the addition of (boiler), (electric), (metric), (UK) and (water). Unlike the calorie (whose 5 values are reasonably close to each other), the horsepower has 4 which are close and 1 (boiler) which is considerably different - it is about 13 times bigger than the others - but it seems to be very little used. The S I unit of power is the watt. To change any of these other units of energy or work into their equivalent values in watts use the operation and conversion factor given. Those marked with # are exact. Other values are given to an appropriate degree of accuracy. Btu/hour Btu/minute Btu/second calories/hour calories/minute calories/second ft lb-force/minute ft lb-force/second gigawatts [GW] horsepower (electric) horsepower (metric)

x x x x x x x x x x x

0.293 071 17.584 267 1055.056 0.001 163 # 0.069 78 # 4.1868 # 0.022 597 1.355 82 1 000 000 000 746 # 735.499

watts [W]

1

joules/hour joules/minute joules/second kilocalories/hour kilocalories/minute kg-force metres/hour kg-force metres/minute kilowatts [kW] megawatts [MW]

divide by 3600 # divide by 60 # 1 x 1.163 x 69.78 x 0.002 724 x 0.163 444 x 1000 # x 1 000 000 #

Return to the top of this document

Pressure or Stress The S I unit of pressure is the pascal. The units of pressure are defined in the same way as those for stress - force/unit area. To change any of these other units of pressure (or stress) into their equivalent values in pascals use the operation and conversion factor given. Those marked with # are exact. Other values are given to an appropriate degree of accuracy. Measures based on water assume a density of 1 kg/litre - a value which is rarely matched in the real world, though the error is small. atmospheres bars centimetres of mercury centimetres of water feet of water hectopascals [hPa] inches of water inches of mercury kg-force/sq.centimetre kg-force/sq.metre kilonewton/sq.metre kilopascal [kPa] kips/sq.inch meganewtons/sq.metre metres of water millibars

x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x x

pascals [Pa]

1

millimetres of mercury millimetres of water newtons/sq.centimetre newtons/sq.metre newtons/sq.millimetre pounds-force/sq.foot pounds-force/sq.inch poundals/sq.foot tons(UK)-force/sq.foot tons(UK)-force/sq.inch tons(US)-force/sq.foot tons(US)-force/sq.inch tonnes-force/sq.cm tonnes-force/sq.metre

x x x 1 x x x x x x x x x x

Return to the top of this document

101 325 # 100 000 # 1333.22 98.066 5 # 2989.066 92 # 100 # 249.088 91 # 3386.388 98 066.5 # 9.806 65 # 1000 # 1000 # 6 894 760 1 000 000 # 9806.65 # 100 #

133.322 9.806 65 # 10 000 1 000 000 # 47.880 6894.757 1.448 16 107 252 15 444 256 95 760 13 789 500 98 066 500 # 9806.65 #

Speed The S I compatible unit of speed is metres/second. To change any of these other units of speed into their equivalent values in metres/second use the operation and conversion factor given. Those marked with # are exact. Other values are given to an appropriate degree of accuracy. centimetres/minute centimetres/second feet/hour feet/minute feet/second inches/minute inches/second kilometres/hour kilometres/second knots Mach number metres/hour metres/minute

divide by 6000 # divide by 100 # divide by 11 811 x 0.005 08 # x 0.3048 # divide by 2362.2 x 0.0254 # divide by 3.6 # x 1000 # x 0.514 444 x 331.5 divide by 3600 # divide by 60 #

metres/second [m/s]

1

miles/hour miles/minute miles/second yards/hour yards/minute yards/second

x 0.447 04 # x 26.8224 # x 1609.344 # divide by 3937 x 0.015 24 # x 0.9144 #

Return to the top of this document

Spread Rate (by mass) The spread rate of a substance is a measure of how much of it there is covering a unit area. The 'how much' can be measured by volume or by mass. The S I compatible unit of spread rate by mass is kilograms/square metre. It is also a measure of area density (mass/unit area) and is similar to - but not the same as - pressure, which is force/unit area. For the rainfall conversions a density of 1 kg/litre has been assumed. To change any of these other units of spread rate into their equivalent values in kilograms/square metre use the operation and conversion factor given. Those marked with # are exact. Other values are given to an appropriate degree of accuracy. The conversion for rainfall assumes a density of 1 kg/litre which is accurate enough for all practical purposes. grams/sq.centimetre x 10 # grams/sq.metre divide inches of rainfall x 2.54 kilograms/hectare divide kilograms/sq.centimetre milligrams/sq.metre divide millimetres of rainfall kilograms/sq.metre

1

by 1000 # by 10 000 # x 10 000 # by 1000 # 1

ounces/sq.foot ounces/sq.inch ounces/sq.yard pounds/acre pounds/sq.foot pounds/sq.inch pounds/sq.yard tonnes/hectare tons(UK)/acre tons(US)/acre

x 0.305 152 x 43.942 divide by 49.494 divide by 8921.791 x 4.882 428 x 703.07 x 0.542 492 divide by 10 # divide by 3.982 942 divide by 4.460 896

Return to the top of this document

Spread Rate (by volume) The spread rate of a substance is a measure of how much of it there is covering a unit area. The 'how much' can be measured by volume or by mass. The S I compatible unit of spread rate by volume is cubic metres/square metre. However, this is a rather large unit for most purposes and so litres/square metre is often preferred. To change any of these other units of spread rate into their equivalent values in litres/square metre use the operation and conversion factor given. Those marked with # are exact. Other values are given to an appropriate degree of accuracy. cubic feet/acre cubic inches/sq.yard cubic yards/sq.mile cubic metres/hectare cubic metres/sq.km cubic metres/sq.metre fl. ounces(UK)/sq.yard

divide divide divide divide divide x 1000 divide

litres/square metre

1

gallons(UK)/acre divide gallons(US)/acre divide gallons(UK)/hectare divide gallons(US)/hectare divide inches of rainfall x 25.4 litres/hectare divide millilitres/sq.metre divide millimetres of rainfall

by by by by by # by

142.913 51.024 3387.577 10 # 1000 #

by by by by # by by 1

890.184 1069.066 2199.692 2641.721

29.428

10 000 # 1000 #

Return to the top of this document

Torque The S I compatible unit of torque is the newton metre. To change any of these other units of torque into their equivalent values in newton metres use the operation and conversion factor given. Those marked with # are exact. Other values are given to an appropriate degree of accuracy. dyne centimetres divide by 10 000 000 # gram-force centimetres x 0.000 098 066 5 #

kg-force centimetres kg-force metres newton centimetres

x 0.098 066 5 # x 9.806 65 # divide by 100 #

newton metres [Nm]

1

ounce-force inches pound-force inches pound-force feet poundal feet ton(UK)-force feet ton(US)-force feet tonne-force metres

divide by 141.612 x 0.112 984 x 1.355 818 x 0.042 140 x 3 037.032 x 2 711.636 x 9 806.65 #

Return to the top of this document

Other Sources in Books Conversion Tables of Units for Science and Engineering by Ari L Horvath Macmillan Reference Books, London, 1986 (147 pages) ISBN 0 333 40857 8 Probably the most comprehensive set of conversion factors in print, covering both old and modern units. There are 77 tables covering categories from Length to Radiation dosage. The Length table alone lists 107 units together with the conversion factors needed to change each one into metres. The Dent Dictionary of Measurement by Darton and Clark J M Dent, London, 1994 (538 pages) ISBN 0 460 861379 Very comprehensive coverage of all kinds of units (including currencies), ordered in conventional dictionary form, and giving several conversion factors. The Economist Desk Companion Random Century, London, 1992 (272 pages) ISBN 0 7126 9816 7 A handy compendium of units used in Science, Medicine, Engineering, Industry, Commerce, Finance and many other places, together with all the necessary conversion factors. There is also much other incidental (but related) information. The Encyclopaedia Britannica

The Weights and Measures of England by R D Connor H M S O, London, 1987 (422 pages) ISBN 0 460 86137 9 A scholarly and detailed account of the history of the development of the British (Imperial) system of weights and measures from the earliest times. British Weights and Measures by R E Zupko A history from Antiquity to the Seventeenth Century The University of Wisconsin Press, 1977 [248 pages] ISBN 0 299 07340 8 The actual history occupies only 100 pages. There is then an extensive list of the various units used in commerce, tables of many pre-Imperial units, a long list of premetric measures used in Europe together with their British and metric equivalents, and nearly 40 pages giving other sources. The World of Measurements by H Arthur Klein Allen and Unwin, London, 1975 (736 pages) ISBN 0 04 500024 7 A very readable and comprehensive account of the history of units used in measuring, from the earliest known beginnings and around the world.

The modern E B has many references to units, but extensive use needs to be made of the index to find them all. It gives a wide selection of weights and measures from countries around the world and the appropriate conversion factors. World Weights and Measures Statistical Office of the United Nations, New York 1955 (225 pages) A very comprehensive survey of each country in the world (as it was then) from Aden to Zanzibar, giving the units used in each for Length, Area and Capacity with their British and Metric equivalents. There is an appendix on the measures used for selected commodities. Currencies are also given. The indexes are very thorough.

Scientific Unit Conversion by Francois Cardarelli Springer-Verlag, London, 1997 (456 pages) ISBN 3-540-76022-9 It claims "This practical manual aims to be the most comprehensive work on the subject of unit conversion. It contains more than 10 000 precise conversion factors." It is certainly a very chunky and compact (= handy-sized) book. Comprehensive it certainly is but still not complete. However, with its very wide coverage, both historical and modern, it should certainly satisfy nearly all users.

Other Sources on the World Wide Web There are now several sites concerned with this topic. (It is popular with those wishing to start up a site.) Almost all the Search Engines will find links to more sites than anyone could really need, and each of those will give more links . . . . . The problem is simply: which one best suits the purpose? The first to be considered must the Official SI Web-site in France. In the UK a very good place to make a start is the Metrication Resource Site run by Chris Keenan. It covers just about everything one could want to know about metrication and, if not covered, gives links to sites where you might find it. Current state of progress, legislation, directives, arguments (for and against), conversions, and many other points of interest, all get a mention. In the USA the National Institute of Standards and Technology (NIST) is excellent, and there is no shortage of information concerning units and their conversion. There is even an excellent 86-page book on the subject (SP 811) which can be read on-line or downloaded and printed out - but note that Adobe Acrobat Reader is needed. The US Metric Association is also a good starting point which provides a wealth of links to other suitable sites. An excellent A to Z of units is available from this site run by Russ Rowlett at the University of North Carolina. Another account of metrication and associated items which has, in addition, some very good pages on historic measures (Anglo-Saxon, Biblical etc.) is provided by Jack Proot (in

Canada) The International Standards Organisation] [I S O] based in Switzerland, is responsible for the world-wide publication of standards for just about anything for which standards can be set. Whilst none of the actual data is online, details of the work of ISO and the publications they produce are. They also give many references to other organisations concerned with standards. Return to the top of this document

Notes Errors

Inverse usage Whilst every care has been taken in In nearly all cases the conversion the compilation of this document, factors have been given to change and many checks have been carried 'non-standard' units into standard out, the possibility of an error is units of the SI. For those cases where always present in a work like this and it is necessary to do a conversion the that must be borne in mind by all other way it is only a matter of users. The author would be glad to be reversing the operation. For example told of any errors detected. to convert feet into metres you Accuracy multiply by 0.3048 so, to convert In a general dictionary like this it is metres into feet you divide by impossible to know just what 0.3048. Following on from this it can accuracy is needed by any particular be seen how conversions can be made user. Where the given value is an between non-standard units, changing exact one then it has been signalled. first into the standard unit and then In most cases other values are back into the required unit. accurate to at least the number of Author's Note significant figures shown. In some A guiding principle behind the cases it might be more than that as writing and presentation of this trailing zeros have not been included. document has been that of clarity for Presentation non-specialist readers. To that end I The conversion factors have mainly have been guilty of breaking "the been presented as multipliers, but rules" in a few places. I am sorry that exceptions to that have been made these transgressions may offend some for two reasons. First, it is easier to readers but I have done so in the convey the exact value 'divide by 60' belief that it will be a little bit easier rather than the approximation for many, and also help the flow of a 'multiply by 0.0166667' and it is continuous narrative. more likely to be keyed in without This dictionary is not meant to be errors if a calculator is being used. encyclopaedic in its coverage, and Second, most calculators accept only there are many many more units 8 digits, which means that 'multiply which are not touched upon, but it is by 0.000 084 666' will become hoped that all 'ordinary' needs are '0.000 0846' (3 significant figures) covered. The many references to

whereas 'divide by 11 811' will give the result to 6 significant figures. The appearance of a '1' needs no operator but shows that the named unit is exactly equivalent to the standard unit.

other sources, both in books and online should take care of anything beyond that. Finally, I must thank all of those who wrote with suggestions (and corrections!) after reading the earlier editions.

Return to the top of this document Go to C I M T Home Page. ©Frank Tapson2002

## unit

This shows grade level based on the word's complexity.

noun

a single thing or person.

any group of things or persons regarded as an entity: They formed a cohesive unit.

one of the individuals or groups that together constitute a whole; one of the parts or elements into which a whole may be divided or analyzed.

one of a number of things, organizations, etc., identical or equivalent in function or form: a rental unit; a unit of rolling stock.

any magnitude regarded as an independent whole; a single, indivisible entity.

Also called dimension. any specified amount of a quantity, as of length, volume, force, momentum, or time, by comparison with which any other quantity of the same kind is measured or estimated.

the least positive integer; one.

- (in a mixed number) the position of the first digit to the left of the decimal point.
- (in a whole number) the position of the first digit from the right of the decimal point.

a machine, part, or system of machines having a specified purpose; apparatus: a heating unit.

Education. a division of instruction centering on a single theme.

Military. an organized body of soldiers, varying in size and constituting a subdivision of a larger body.

- the measured amount of a substance necessary to cause a certain effect; a clinical quantity used when a substance cannot be readily isolated in pure form and its activity determined directly.
- the amount necessary to cause a specific effect upon a specific animal or upon animal tissues.

- an identity element.
- an element in a group, ring, etc., that possesses an inverse.

QUIZ

ARE YOU A TRUE BLUE CHAMPION OF THESE "BLUE" SYNONYMS?

We could talk until we're blue in the face about this quiz on words for the color "blue," but we think you should take the quiz and find out if you're a whiz at these colorful terms.

Question 1 of 8

Which of the following words describes “sky blue”?

### Origin of unit

1570; coined by John Dee as a translation of Greek mónas (previously rendered as unity); perhaps influenced by digit

### OTHER WORDS FROM unit

in·ter·u·nit,adjectivemul·ti·u·nit,adjectivesubunit,nounsu·per·u·nit,noun### Words nearby unit

unisexual, unisize, unison, unisonous, unispiral, unit, UNITA, unitage, unitard, unitarian, Unitarianism

### Other definitions for unit (2 of 2)

abbreviation

Unitarian.

Dictionary.com Unabridged Based on the Random House Unabridged Dictionary, © Random House, Inc. 2021

### Words related to unit

crew, group, system, entity, member, component, arm, assembly, crowd, complement, outfit, one, entirety, detachment, gang, totality, mob, ring, total, section

### How to use unit in a sentence

Gunnar shared her idea with members of the adoption unit at the Minnesota Department of Human Services.

Puberty can repair the brain’s stress responses after hardship early in life|Esther Landhuis|August 28, 2020|Science News

LG says you can "wear the unit comfortably for hours on end" but that the 820mAh battery is only good for "eight hours of operation in low mode and two hours on high."

LG’s battery-powered face mask will “make breathing effortless”|Ron Amadeo|August 27, 2020|Ars Technica

On Tuesday, the San Francisco Bay Area company announced a new subsidiary named Coefficient Insurance that will also be backed by Swiss Re Corporate Solutions, the commercial insurance unit of Swiss Re Group.

Alphabet’s Verily plans to use big data to help employers predict health insurance costs|Rachel Schallom|August 25, 2020|Fortune

“For every dollar that we don’t collect from rent, that’s one fewer dollar we have to run that unit,” Neely said in an interview.

She Was Sued Over Rent She Didn’t Owe. It Took Seven Court Dates to Prove She Was Right.|by Danielle Ohl, Capital Gazette, and Talia Buford and Beena Raghavendran, ProPublica|August 25, 2020|ProPublica

While it may look like the water would stay contained to your unit, water moves in mysterious ways.

Know your limits when it comes to DIY|Sherri Anne Green|August 15, 2020|Washington Blade

“Stay in formation,” a sergeant from the ceremonial unit said over a public address system to the cops along the street.

Funeral Protest Is Too Much for NYPD Union Boss|Michael Daly|January 5, 2015|DAILY BEAST

My father was in an intelligence unit for the U.S. Navy, as he had been in World War II.

The Story Behind Lee Marvin’s Liberty Valance Smile|Robert Ward|January 3, 2015|DAILY BEAST

Bitcoin began 2013 with a roaring price of $770 per unit, and businesses right and left were converting to the ethereal product.

You Were Wrong About Miley & Bitcoin: 2014’s Failed Predictions|Nina Strochlic|December 31, 2014|DAILY BEAST

They then become members of the ultra elite Unit 121, granted premium housing and a well-stocked cupboard.

Inside the ‘Surprisingly Great’ North Korean Hacker Hotel|Michael Daly|December 20, 2014|DAILY BEAST

The unit is used to attack foreign networks, and either it or a sister organization was involved in the Sony hack.

U.S. Should Make North Korea Pay for Sony Hack|Gordon G. Chang|December 18, 2014|DAILY BEAST

As a fighting unit they are on their last legs and when they will be set upon their feet again Lord K. knows.

Gallipoli Diary, Volume I|Ian Hamilton

It is built on the "Unit" principle, and is divided between the extreme ends of the lofty structure.

The Recent Revolution in Organ Building|George Laing Miller

This gallery division, complete in itself, represents the latest type of Unit organ.

The Recent Revolution in Organ Building|George Laing Miller

As we came to each Battalion Headquarters we were told, "These are the remnants of the——," whatever the unit was.

Gallipoli Diary, Volume I|Ian Hamilton

The first duty of father and mother to their child is to see that they are a unit on family government.

The value of a praying mother|Isabel C. Byrum

### British Dictionary definitions for unit (1 of 2)

noun

a single undivided entity or whole

any group or individual, esp when regarded as a basic element of a larger whole

a mechanical part or integrated assembly of parts that performs a subsidiary functiona filter unit

a complete system, apparatus, or establishment that performs a specific functiona production unit

a subdivision of a larger military formation

Also called: unit of measurementA standard amount of a physical quantity, such as length, mass, energy, etc, specified multiples of which are used to express magnitudes of that physical quantitythe second is a unit of time

the amount of a drug, vaccine, etc, needed to produce a particular effect

a standard measure used in calculating alcohol intake and its effect

- (usually plural)the first position in a place-value counting system, representing a single-digit numberin the decimal system the number 27 has 7 units and 2 tens
- (modifier)having a value defined as one for the systemunit vector

Also called: unit setmathslogica set having a single member

short for home unit

short for stock unit

NZa self-propelled railcar

### Word Origin for unit

C16: back formation from unity, perhaps on the model of digit

### British Dictionary definitions for unit (2 of 2)

abbreviation for

Unitarian

Collins English Dictionary - Complete & Unabridged 2012 Digital Edition © William Collins Sons & Co. Ltd. 1979, 1986 © HarperCollins Publishers 1998, 2000, 2003, 2005, 2006, 2007, 2009, 2012

### Medical definitions for unit

n.

An entity regarded as an elementary structural or functional constituent of a whole.

A precisely specified quantity in terms of which the magnitudes of other quantities of the same kind can be stated.

The quantity of a serum, drug, or other agent necessary to produce a specific effect.

The American Heritage® Stedman's Medical Dictionary Copyright © 2002, 2001, 1995 by Houghton Mifflin Company. Published by Houghton Mifflin Company.

**This dictionary provides an account of the principal units of measurement to be found in use around the world today, and the conversion factors often needed to change them into 'standard' units of the SI system.**deals mainly with the conversion of measures in one system to their equivalent values in another system. The necessary factors are given to a high degree of accuracy, and there is also access to a wide range of on-line calculators to automate the process.

gives a full account of the three principal systems, their definitions, relationships and development, with some guidance on their rules and usage. There are also references to other sources in books and on the Web.

**there is also the -**which deals with some additional matters of interest related to units, and about which queries are frequently received.

**as well the -**giving access to 40 different calculators, each devoted to converting units of measure in a particular category.

**and a -**providing a handy list of the conversion units often needed for the more common types of measures.

.

## Units dictionary of

.

Measurement \u0026 Units - Part -1- The Dictionary of Science -.

### Now discussing:

- Merrell twins brother
- Beautiful cross wallpaper
- Elite dangerous fleet carrier fuel
- Tropical themed fabrics
- Pioneer dj decks
- Crayola cardstock
- Anna cora reviews
- Eagle river ford dealership
- Apex legends rubberbanding pc

.

**1272**1273 1274